|ISSN Online||: Under Processing|
|Journal DOI||: 10.31579/JNDR/2018|
|Google Scholar||: Citation|
|Current Issue||: Volume 2 - Issue 1 - 2019|
|PubMed Indexed Articles||:|
Neurodegeneration is the progressive loss of structure or function of neurons, including death of neurons, can be found in many different levels of neuronal circuitry ranging from molecular to systemic.
Neurodegeneration is a key aspect of a large number of diseases that come under the umbrella of neurodegenerative diseases.
Neurodegeneration accepts high-quality papers in the form of brief reports, original research, or review articles from a broad spectrum of scientific research areas ranging from neuroscience and genetics to clinical and preclinical neuroimaging and biomarker studies.
We welcome eminent manuscripts of Research/ Review/ Case Studies/ Short Communications/ Opinions/ Letter to Editors/ Mini Reviews/ Presentations/ Perspective Studies etc. for publication. The wide scope of the journal will aid in contributing a great measure of scientific information related to the advances in towards better healthcare. The Journal is using double-blind peer-review for the manuscript processing. Each article undergoes this peer review process under the aegis of an assigned Editor. To be acceptable for publication, an article should be positively considered by two individual reviewers followed by the Editor’s consent.
Neurodegenerative diseases are a heterogeneous group of disorders that are characterized by the progressive degeneration of the structure and function of the central nervous system or peripheral nervous system.
Mechanism(s) underlying their progressive nature remains unknown but a timely and well-controlled inflammatory reaction is essential for the integrity and proper function of the CNS. Substantial evidence has documented a common inflammatory mechanism in various neurodegenerative diseases.
Examples of neurodegenerative diseases are Alzheimer's disease, Parkinson's disease, Huntington's disease, amyotrophic lateral sclerosis, front temporal dementia and the spin cerebellar ataxias.
Alzheimer’s disease is an irreversible, progressive brain disorder that slowly destroys memory and thinking skills, and eventually the ability to carry out the simplest tasks.
Alzheimer’s is the most common cause of dementia among older adults. Dementia is the loss of cognitive functioning, thinking, remembering, and reasoning, and behavioral abilities to such an extent that it interferes with a person’s daily life and activities.
The main causes of Alzheimer’s disease include increasing age, a family history of the condition, previous severe head injuries, lifestyle factors and conditions associated with cardiovascular disease. Like all types of dementia, Alzheimer's is caused by brain cell death. It is a neurodegenerative disease, which means there is progressive brain cell death that happens over time.
Depending on the age and health conditions Alzheimer’s patients can survive 8-15 yrs after symptoms become noticeable.
Autopsies have shown that the nerve tissue in the brain of a person with Alzheimer's has tiny deposits, known as plaques and tangles that build up on the tissue.
Cognitive assessment, Genetic testing, Drug therapy.
Parkinsonism is a neurological syndrome characterized by tremor, rigidity, postural instability, and hypokinesia (decreased bodily movement).
Parkinson's disease is the most common cause of Parkinsonism
Parkinson's disease is a progressive nervous system disorder that affects how the person moves, including how they speak and write. Symptoms develop gradually, and may start off with ever-so-slight tremors in one hand. People with Parkinson's disease also experience stiffness and find they cannot carry out movements as rapidly as before - this is called bradykinesia. The muscles of a person with Parkinson's become weaker and the individual may assume an unusual posture.
It's thought around 1 in 500 people are affected by Parkinson's disease, which means there are an estimated 127,000 people in the UK with the condition. Men are slightly more likely to get Parkinson's disease than women.
The three main symptoms of Parkinson's disease are: involuntary shaking of particular parts of the body (tremor), slow movement, stiff and inflexible muscles.
There is no cure for PD. A variety of medicines sometimes help symptoms dramatically. Surgery and deep brain stimulation (DBS) can help severe cases, anti-Parkinson disease medication treatment is good control of Parkinson diesease for 4-5 yrs. Physiothery is also a good treatment to improve your muscle strength.
Huntington's disease: Huntington's disease is an incurable, hereditary brain disorder. It is a devastating disease that causes damage to brain cells, or neurons.
Huntington disease is a genetic disorder. The HD gene is dominant, which means that each child of a parent with HD has a 50% chance of inheriting the disease and is said to be at-risk. Males and females have the same risk of inheriting the disease. HD occurs in all races.
Symptoms usually appear between the ages of 35 and 55, but the disease can appear in youth (under 20 years – Juvenile HD) or older adults (Late Onset HD).
No treatments can alter the course of Huntington's disease. But medications can lessen some symptoms of movement and psychiatric disorders, Predictive genetic test, Genetic counseling and testing, Brain imaging and function, Neuropsychological testing.
Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis
Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) is a nervous system disease that attacks nerve cells called neurons in the brain and spinal cord. At first, this causes mild muscle problems. Some people notice;
Trouble walking or running
Currently, there is no cure for ALS and no effective treatment to halt, or reverse, the progression of the disease.
Frontotemporal dementia (FTD) or frontotemporal degenerations refers to a group of disorders caused by progressive nerve cell loss in the brain's frontal lobes (the areas behind your forehead) or its temporal lobes (the regions behind your ears).
Behavioral variant of FTD
Semantic variant (primary progressive aphasia)
Nonfluent agrammatic variant primary progressive aphasia
Progressive supranuclear palsy
FTD associated with motor neuron disease
Spin cerebellar ataxias
Spinocerebellar ataxia (SCA) is one of a group of genetic disorders characterized by slowly progressive incoordination of gait and is often associated with poor coordination of hands, speech, and eye movements
Neurorehabilitation is a complex medical process which aims to aid recovery from a nervous system injury, and to minimize and/or compensate for any functional alterations resulting from it.
Progressive neurological disorders such as dementias, Parkinson's and tumours and isolated neurological events such as traumatic brain injuries and strokes can benefit enormously from neuro rehabilitation
Neurorehabilitation works with the skills and attitudes of the disabled person and their family and friends. It promotes their skills to work at the highest level of independence possible for them. It also encourages them to rebuild self-esteem and a positive mood. Thus, they can adapt to the new situation and become empowered for successful and committed community reintegration.
Neurorehabilitation should be: Holistic, Patient-focused, Inclusive, Participatory, Sparing, Lifelong, Resolving, and Community-focused.
The most important therapies are those that help people live their everyday lives. These include physiotherapy, occupational therapy, psychological therapy, speech, and language therapy, and therapies focused on daily function and community re-integration. A particular focus is given to improving mobility and strength, as this is key to a person's independence
Physiotherapy includes helping patients recover the ability of physical actions which includes: balance retraining, gait analysis and transfer training, neuromuscular retraining, orthotics consultations, and aqua therapy.
Occupational therapists can help to teach strategies and improve a range of abilities in order to help someone get back to work or to their hobbies and sports.
Speech and Language:
Speech and Language therapists can help people to work on any language difficulties they have or to overcome issues with swallowing and eating if there is any muscle weakness in the throat.
Rehabilitation therapy is a vital part of recovering from an accident, illness or hospitalization. People of all ages from infants to seniors benefit from these therapeutic disciplines.
Brain Injury Rehabilitation: Rehabilitation aims to help the brain learn alternative ways of working in order to minimize the long-term impact of the brain injury. Rehabilitation also helps the survivor and the family to cope successfully with any remaining disabilities.
Brain rehabilitation therapy helps people relearn functions lost as a result of a brain injury. These might include daily activities such as eating, dressing, walking or speech.
Neurological rehabilitation is a doctor-supervised program designed for people with diseases, trauma, or disorders of the nervous system. Neurological rehabilitation can often improve function, reduce symptoms, and improve the well-being of the patient.
Some of the conditions that may benefit from neurological rehabilitation may include, but are not limited to, the following:
Vascular disorders, such as ischemic strokes (caused by blood clots), hemorrhagic strokes (caused by bleeding in the brain), subdural hematoma, and transient ischemic attacks (TIAs)
Infections, such as meningitis, encephalitis, polio, and brain abscesses
Trauma, such as brain and spinal cord injury
The range of treatments available for neurorehabilitation must include appropriate psychotherapeutic approaches, if only because of the frequent occurrence of psychological co-morbidities.
Spinal Cord Injury Rehabilitation
The rehabilitation process following a spinal cord injury typically begins in the acute care setting. Occupational therapy plays an important role in the management of Spinal cord injury.
Stroke rehabilitation involves many kinds of health professionals. The goal is to help stroke survivors become as independent as possible and to have the best possible quality of life.
Neuro-muscular strengthening and training
Visual perceptual skill development
Thoughts on Therapy
Short term Rehabilitation.
Stress, anxiety, and depression management
Social and behavioral skills retraining
Safety and independence measures and home care needs
Stress management and emotional support
Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis
Front temporal dementia
Spin cerebellar ataxias
Nucleus basalis of meynert